The Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness

by Captain Walker

Categories: Psychology & Philosophy

The fallacy of misplaced concreteness, also known as reification, is a logical fallacy where an abstract concept is treated as if it were a concrete, tangible object.

This error involves attributing a physical reality or concrete qualities to something that is abstract. Alfred North Whitehead introduced the term to critique the way certain abstract scientific or philosophical concepts are erroneously regarded as if they had real, physical existence.

Misplaced concreteness can cause significant issues in both theoretical discourse and practical decision-making. By assuming that an abstraction has a definitive, unchanging existence, one might ignore the complexities and variations inherent in the actual phenomena being described. This can result in misguided policies or philosophical positions that fail to address the true nature of the subject at hand.

Key features:

  1. Abstract to concrete: This fallacy occurs when an abstract concept is treated as if it were a concrete, tangible object.
  2. Personification: It often involves attributing physical reality or concrete qualities to something abstract, leading to the mistaken belief that the concept has real, physical existence.
  3. Simplification: It oversimplifies complex and dynamic systems by assuming they are single, definitive entities.
  4. Misunderstanding and Misguidance: This can lead to misunderstandings in theoretical discussions and misguided decisions in practical applications.
  5. Philosophical Critique: The concept was introduced by Alfred North Whitehead to critique scientific and philosophical approaches that erroneously reify abstractions.
  6. Awareness of Limitations: Avoiding this fallacy requires an understanding that abstractions are simplifications and not direct representations of reality.


Conversation 1: Economic Policy

Person A: “The economy wants us to cut down on spending.”

Person B: “What do you mean ‘the economy wants’? The economy isn’t a person with desires.”

Person A: “Well, it’s just obvious that it’s telling us we need to reduce our spending.”

Person B: “You’re committing the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. The economy is an abstract system, not an entity that can communicate or have intentions. We need to analyse specific indicators and data to make informed decisions, not anthropomorphize the economy.”

Conversation 2: Social Change

Person A: “Society is angry with the government’s decision.”

Person B: “How can society be angry? It’s not a single entity with feelings.”

Person A: “You know what I mean, everyone is upset.”

Person B: “But you’re making a logical error by treating society as if it were a person. We need to consider the diverse opinions and reactions of different groups within society, not oversimplify it as one homogenous entity.”

Conversation 3: Technological Advancement

Person A: “Artificial Intelligence will take over our jobs because it wants to dominate the workforce.”

Person B: “AI doesn’t have desires or intentions; it’s just a tool created by humans.”

Person A: “But it seems like it’s pushing us out of our jobs.”

Person B: “You’re falling into the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. AI isn’t an independent entity with motives. It’s important to focus on the implications of AI development and how we manage and regulate it, rather than imagining it as having personal ambitions.”

Conversation 4: Environmental Policy

Person A: “Nature is punishing us for our pollution.”

Person B: “Nature doesn’t have the capacity to punish or reward; it’s not a conscious being.”

Person A: “But look at all the natural disasters happening.”

Person B: “You’re committing the fallacy of misplaced concreteness by attributing intentionality to nature. Natural disasters are complex events influenced by numerous factors. We need to understand these factors scientifically rather than personifying nature.”

Conversation 5: Market Trends

Person A: “The stock market is nervous about the upcoming election.”

Person B: “The stock market doesn’t have emotions like nervousness.”

Person A: “It sure seems that way with all the fluctuations.”

Person B: “That’s the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. The stock market reflects the actions of investors and various economic indicators. It’s important to analyse those actions and indicators instead of attributing emotions to the market itself.”

This fallacy highlights the importance of distinguishing between abstract models or concepts and the real-world phenomena they represent. While abstractions are useful tools for understanding and analysing complex systems, it is crucial to remember that they are simplifications and not direct representations of reality. Avoiding the fallacy of misplaced concreteness involves maintaining an awareness of the limitations and context of the concepts we use.

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